The Lizard Log

The Langkilde Lab in Action

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Testing the environmental matching hypothesis – return to Alabama!

Another summer field season has now come and gone! This summer I returned to Solon Dixon Forestry Education Center in Alabama (one of my favourite spots on earth!) to continue my research on how stress during gestation influences the offspring of eastern fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus).

Last year, we investigated how physiological stress during gestation (at the level of a non-lethal predator encounter – for example, when a lizard encounters a couple of toxic fire ants, but isn’t killed by the ants) affects survival of mothers, and how many of their eggs successfully hatch. You can read more about this experiment, and the fieldwork that went into it, here (and stay posted for the published results soon!).

This year I wanted to build on these results and ideas to test how maternal stress influences the offspring that do hatch and make it out into the world. Do they themselves then cope better with a stressful environment, having been “primed” for it by their mothers (the “environmental matching” hypothesis)? Or are offspring born to stressed mothers poorer in quality, and less likely to survive in the wild, regardless of how stressful their environment is? In order to test these ideas, we first made the long trip south to collect gravid females from south Alabama early in the summer, and to build experimental enclosures in which to eventually release their offspring. I then repeated the maternal stress treatment from last year and once again became a lizard mama as I followed the females from laying their eggs, to incubating the eggs, and eventually seeing these bite-sized babies hatch out!


Freshly hatched fence lizards – <1g!

Once they hatched, the offspring went into the enclosures that we’d built. These enclosures were designed to test whether maternal stress programs offspring to be able to better deal with a stressful environment. The enclosures either contained a key stressor (invasive fire ants), or were fire ant-free. Each day I conducted a mini-census, walking through enclosures to look for each lizard – as you can see in the video below, babies were marked so I could tell exactly who was present each day (and so, which lizards survived, and which didn’t). I also observed their behaviour, and how they used the habitat available to them (for example, did offspring from stressed/non-stressed mothers differ in whether they liked to be out in the open, like the lizards you see in the video – or did they hide more?).

After a great summer (if measuring 200+ baby lizards isn’t a metric of a great summer, I don’t know what is), I’m now back at Penn State with a box of data to work through. I’m excited to report back on what I found in the coming months – so stay tuned!




Hanging out with an adult female Sceloporus at Solon Dixon


Beautiful Solon Dixon


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Not all of the lab went south this summer; Kristen (one of our awesome lab undergrads) and I stayed at Penn State most of the summer, working on immune assays.  Kristen was the recipient of the Erickson Discovery Grant, and spent much of her summer on an independent research project, which involved measuring the effects of corticosterone (CORT) on the cell-mediated immunity (i.e. one way the body responds to a toxic or foreign substance) of eastern fence lizard females. She was also trying to determine if the lizards’ life history (whether they were from sites with or without fire ants) affected their immune function or interacted with the CORT treatment. Kristen just recently gave an excellent talk on her research at the Three Rivers Evolution Event (TREE) on Sept. 9th, where she was one of the only undergraduates to present a talk.

We also spent a lot of time this summer developing, improving, and validating several different immune assays for use in fence lizards, including ELISA assays for measuring anti-fire ant antibodies (IgY and IgM), complement function, natural antibodies, and the activity levels of heterophils (a type of immune cell that kills bacteria). Work on the assays for IgY, complement function, and natural antibodies is ongoing, but the IgM and heterophil activity assays are ready to be used.

The IgM ELISA assay was developed to work with as little as 10μl of plasma, and accurately detected anti-fire ant antibodies in a pool of plasma of lizards from Alabama, where the lizards are regularly exposed to fire ants. It did not detect any antibodies in a pool of plasma of lizards from Tennessee, at sites which have not yet been invaded by fire ants. The next step is to test the plasma of individual lizards from different sites, to see what proportion of lizards in various invaded sites have actually developed IgM antibodies to fire ants. Once the IgY assay is working, we should be able to better characterize the antibody response of the lizards to fire ants, and see if this helps them recover faster from fire ant stings.

IgM in the plasma of Alabama lizards

The higher the proportion of plasma from invaded (Alabama) lizards, the higher the signal from the IgM antibody.

Our heterophil activity assay is based off the assay described in Merchant, Williams, and Hardy (2009) for use in American alligators. To account for the much smaller blood volume of fence lizards, I altered the assay to work with 10μl of whole blood, and validated it in this species. This assay specifically tests for the presence of superoxide radicals, which are produced by heterophils as part of the oxidative burst used to kill bacteria and other organisms. When heterophils are more active (either because there are more heterophils or because the existing heterophils have been stimulated by something), the amount of superoxide in the blood increases. As part of the validation, we ran the assay with pools of blood treated with superoxide dismutase, which destroys superoxide, to test that the signal is actually caused by superoxide. We also ran blood with and without a stimulant of heterophil function, to determine if the signal reliably increases when heterophils are more active. The signal reliably decreases when inhibited by superoxide dismutase, and reliably increases when stimulant is added, indicating that this is a reliable test of heterophil function.

We also did a little bit of work optimizing the natural antibody test, increasing the sensitivity of the test so that it will work with less lizard plasma. And we also found a promising lead for testing alternative pathway complement function in fence lizards.

Aside from all the immunology work, we also got out into the field up here in Pennsylvania a little bit, although we didn’t find many lizards. All in all, it was a fun, productive summer.

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What’s in an egg?

Hello again everyone!

While most of my work has been on measuring hormones and metabolites from blood, or recording behaviors, I decided to try my hand at something new. I wanted to see if I could measure the contents of a lizard egg!

As eggs can vary widely in the volume of water they contain, the first thing I had to do was dry the egg. Because I wanted to measure proteins and lipids, I wasn’t able to heat the egg up though, so instead I used a freeze-dryer.  Once dried, I carefully removed the shell (because shells are reaaaaally hard to grind) and then homogenized the yolk sample.


Once the yolk was ground up, I needed a way to extract the proteins and lipids from the yolk. To do so, I weighed out a specific amount of the egg, added some dangerous chemicals, and then filtered that solution through an incredibly tiny filter. The size of the holes in a coffee filter are 20 microns, while the size of a bacteria is 0.6 microns. This filter had holes that were 0.2 microns!


After filtering the solution, I could then try to measure the amount of proteins and lipids. To do so, I added a tiny drop of the solution to a piece of quick dry paper.


Once the paper completely dried, I was able to shine a light through it and get an absorbance value.


Stay tuned for the results of what I found!