The Lizard Log

The Langkilde Lab in Action


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Basking Site Use by Timber Rattlesnake Morphotypes – By Shawn Snyder

My name is Shawn Snyder and I am currently a senior majoring in Wildlife and Fisheries Science.  This is my first and only year working in the Langkilde Lab.  During the summer of 2016, I worked under Dr. Chris Howey as a Research Technician studying the effects of prescribed fire on timber rattlesnake populations.  This position provided me the opportunity to radio-track timber rattlesnakes, record habitat data on tracked snakes, catch new snakes (extremely fun), learn how to safely tube a venomous snake (even more fun), and conduct vegetation surveys.  Also, this position provided me the opportunity to formulate my own scientific question to test! Together, Chris and I thought up a small side-project that I could conduct throughout the summer, which provided me the fantastic experience of going through the scientific process, collecting my own data, analyzing those data, and now writing a manuscript so that I can share those results with the scientific world.

When we first started collecting data for my side-project I was a little apprehensive.  Once the data was collected and analyzed I realized that this project was going to take time and a large amount of effort to complete.  As the process of analyzing the data and then coming up with a plan for the manuscript began to take shape, I started to feel challenged and nervous by this new task. But weekly meetings with Chris to discuss the process of writing a manuscript have helped immensely.  This is my first manuscript and yes it is challenging, but it will all be worth it once we have a finished product. I have ambitions to continue on to a Graduate program after I graduate and this manuscript will help me build my C.V. to apply to Grad schools.

yellow-and-black-morphs

Two yellow morphs bask alongside three black morph timber rattlesnakes at a gestation site. Although we did not use gestating (i.e., pregnant) females as part of this project, this shows you the posture of a basking snake and the difference in color morphs.

My research is investigating if the two distinct morphotypes of timber rattlesnakes (a dark, black morph and a lighter, yellow morph; see above picture) use basking habitat with differing amounts of canopy openness and solar radiation. Previous research suggests that the dark morph evolved in response to thermal limitations in the northern parts of its range.  Darker snakes have more melanin in their skin, which allows them to absorb more solar radiation and maintain a higher body temperature than yellow morphs.  Yellow morphs having this thermal disadvantage, in theory would have to choose basking sites that receive more solar radiation to compensate for this limitation if they wanted to maintain a similar body temperature to the black morphs.  Specifically, I am testing the hypothesis that yellow morphs use basking habitat that has more canopy openness and receives more direct solar radiation (i.e., sun) than basking habitat used by black morphs.

 

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A black morph male timber rattlesnake is seen courting a basking yellow morph female.  Once again, the difference in color morphs is striking and has led many to ask what selective pressures are maintaining this polymorphism.

To test this hypothesis, I measured canopy openness over basking yellow and black morphs. I used the timber rattlesnakes that are being radio-tracked for Dr. Howey’s main study as my sample population and placed a flag where a snake was found exhibiting basking behaviors (see picture below  for example).  We took a picture facing skyward directly over the snake using a camera with a fisheye lens.  This lens takes a picture of 180 degrees and captures an image of all of the canopy over the snake (see picture).  We can then analyze these hemispherical photographs using a computer program called Gap Light Analyzer to measure the percent canopy openness and the amount of direct solar radiation transmittance (i.e., rays of sunlight) for each basking site.  Direct solar radiation is when the sunlight reaches the forest floor with no obstructions from the canopy; as opposed to indirect solar radiation which may be radiation that is being reflected off of clouds, trees, or the ground itself.  Our study site is characterized as having a mature Oak/Maple forest with an abundance of closed canopy throughout the area.  Both morphotypes use this “closed canopy” forest throughout the summer as foraging grounds, and when they need to bask they must seek out areas where some sunlight is making its way through the canopy.  This is where my question becomes very important comparing the habitat used by each morph.

 

flagged-yellow-morph

A flag is placed next to a basking yellow morph.  An exact description of the habitat is recorded so that I can come back at a later time (when the snake is not there) and take a photo of the canopy directly over where the snake had been.

canopy-pics-between-color-morphs

Two examples of hemispherical photographs taken over two different basking timber rattlesnakes.  Both canopies actually have similar canopy openness, but the canopy on the left receives far more direct solar radiation based on the placement of those canopy openings.

So far, my results show that the two morphs use habitat that have similar percent canopy openness, however, there was a difference in the amount of UV transmittance between the basking sites used by the two morphs.  Canopy openness doesn’t necessarily designate a “warmer” site because the sun path may not go directly over the gaps in the canopy of that site, thus, the site wouldn’t receive large amounts of direct solar radiation.  Black morphs use basking sites that received lower amounts of direct sunlight.  They may be able to do this because the greater amount of melanin in their skin provides a greater ability to absorb whatever direct or indirect solar radiation is available more effectively. Yellow morphs use basking sites that received more direct solar radiation.  They could be forced to use these sites to compensate for their disadvantage in their thermal ability.  I am currently working on writing a manuscript for these data and hope to have it completed by the end of 2016.  Stay tuned for more on this manuscripts progress!

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Here is a picture of Shawn (holding a Hellbender!!) while on a break from collecting some amazing data.

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Adult Outreach

As Chris explained in his latest blog post, the goals of scientific outreach are numerous. One such goal is simply to interest others in scientific research. This is fairly straightforward to accomplish with kids, and there are many great opportunities in place to interface with young adults. Like Science-U, there are numerous annual science outreach events established for K-12 aged kids.

A few years ago, some of the Langkilde Lab participated in WPSU’s Eventapalooza, where we discussed the biology and ecology of cats. As Chris mentioned, getting people over to your table when you don’t have flashy demos or robots can be a challenge. Our solution: arts and crafts! Kids made “whiskers” to learn about sensory mechanisms and crawled through a maze while blindfolded to test them out! We also had plenty of coloring pages and a matching game to see how well different wild cat species blend into their habitat.

brad helping

Brad helping a young adult into their whiskers!

Jenny explains how cats hear.

Jenny explains how cats hear.

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My matching game demonstrates how cats blend into their habitat.

These types of events are great for kids, but there are fewer established opportunities to interact with members of the adult public. Scientific literacy—or at least interest—of adults is incredibly important, as adults utilize scientific information to make informed decisions about health and lifestyle. Additionally, adults can influence the outcome of science-related political issues. Science outreach for adults is thus quite essential, and something in which I have become very interested.

With this in mind, myself and a number of others from the Ecology Graduate Student Organization organized a Science Café series at a local bookstore.  At these events, two graduate students or faculty members present a five to ten minute Ted-Talk like presentation on a pertinent topic in ecology, such as invasive species or climate change. After each general, accessible presentation, the floor is opened for discussion with the audience. These discussions have proven quite fruitful, and we have received positive feedback about each of our events. Last spring, we held 3 Science Café events at Webster’s Bookstore Café in Downtown State College. At one of these events, I had the opportunity to present about stress with fellow grad student Lauren Chaby in an event entitled “Why is stress stressful? How animals and humans respond to challenges.”

Graduate Student Lauren Chaby discusses the consequences of stress. March 2014

Graduate Student Lauren Chaby discusses the consequences of stress. March 2014

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Moderator Andie Chan introduces graduate student speaker Danelle Laflower and Dr. Tomás Carlo, who spoke about Invasive Species in April 2014.

Following the success of last year’s series, we had two additional Science Café events earlier this year, and two more are forthcoming. If you are located in the State College area, I encourage you to attend! At our next Science Café (Wed March 18th at 6pm), Ecology graduate students Megan Keplar Schall and Will Miller will be discussing disease in wildlife and fisheries. This event is free and, of course, open to the public—bring your questions! More details are located below. Hope to see you there!

Slide1

“Wild animals get sick too! Case studies from Pennsylvania fish and game species:”

  • Wednesday, March 18 from 6-7pm
  • Webster’s Bookstore, 133 E Beaver Ave, State College, PA 16801
  • No cover charge. Drinks and snacks can be purchased from Webster’s.
  • Suggest Parking: Pugh Street Parking Garage

 

Our final Science Café event this season will be on Wednesday April 8th at 6pm, investigating the topic of soils, roots, and nutrients (and why we should care about these things!). Follow the EGSO website for more information.

These events are a great way to communicate the kind of research happening at the university that the community might not otherwise know about. They also provide an informal environment in which to ask questions. We hope the Science Café series continues for years to come!

 


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Undergrad Research in All Its Glory

The Eberly College of Science held it’s first Undergrad Experiences Poster Exhibit last week, which I coordinated in my current role as the Tombros Fellow for Undergrad Research in the Dean’s Office. It was a huge success – if I do say so myself.

Signage directing students to the poster exhibit, and featuring Lindsey Swierk and ** and ** (undergraduate researcher lab alum)

Signage directing students to the poster exhibit, and featuring Lindsey Swierk and Erica Green and Edward Owen (undergraduate researcher lab alum).

We had 47 undergraduates present their research and international experiences, and over 300 attendees!! The place was so packed that it was difficult to move. OK, so many of these students were there because their professors mandated attendance; but they assure me they would have come anyway (right?). All evidence suggests that everyone got something out of the experience.

Early in the evening – you can see the line of students up the stairs in the background, waiting to get in.

Early in the evening – you can see the line of students up the stairs in the background, waiting to get in.

Standing room only.

Standing room only.

I had several goals for this event. Many of the attendees were first year undergraduate students in their very first semester in college. Many of them have heard and maybe even thought about becoming involved in research. This gave them the opportunity to see the types of research being conducted in the College, and to ask the presenters about their experiences. (I tell them that they should become involved in research, but it’s been a while since I was an undergraduate so it’s much better if they get this from their peers).

The presenters had the opportunity to talk about their research with a scientific audience. (There is a University-wide Undergraduate Poster Session, which allows students to present to a general (non-scientific) audience).

Several Departments and Programs across the College sponsored prizes, and we had over 30 judges volunteer their time to select deserving students.

Our Excellence in Life Science Research Overall Winner, Josh Bram, with our guest alumni judge Dr. McManigle.

Our Excellence in Life Science Research Overall Winner, Josh Bram, with our guest alumni judge Dr. McManigle.

Our very own Mark Herr took out the Outstanding Poster Presentation prize provided by the Center for Brain, Behavior and Cognition (the same project for which he received honorable mention at JMIH).

Me and Mark with his award certificate. With everything going on, we forgot to do this on the night. So we staged a photo with a “hand” from Chris Howey and Gregory Reilly (our newest undergrad lab member).

Me and Mark with his award certificate. With everything going on, we forgot to do this on the night. So we staged a photo with a “hand” from Chris Howey and Gregory Reilly (our newest undergrad lab member).

And Cecilia Zemanek definitely wins the award for “most-productivity-in-the-shortest-amount-of-time”. Cecilia decided she was going to do a poster before even starting her research – and only 1 week before the presentation. She managed to design an excellent project on Mexican Jumping Beans, collect and analyze the data, and put together a fantastic poster in just 7 days. Extraordinary!

Cecilia at the Exhibit with her poster, and in the lab working on her lighting-fast research.

Cecilia at the Exhibit with her poster… and some beans!


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SEECoS 2014: Madagascar Hissing Cockroach Project

The lab’s high schoolers from the Upward Bound Math and Science (UBMS) program SEECOS (Summer Experience in the Eberly College of Science) have been hard at work in the lab. Here is an update from Kiara and Jermayne, with some extra details from Melissa.

My name is Kiara Camacho and my partner’s name is Jermayne Jones from the Upward Bound Math and Science program. Our research assignment this year was “Measuring Stress: Is timing really everything?” The weather has not been cooperating with us lately, so on July 3rd our trip was cancelled to go hiking for lizards. Instead, we did an experiment to test stress in Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches. During this experiment we created our own habitat or arena for the hissing cockroaches using two 2-liter soda bottles that we cut open. We had one dark end and one light end with food or heat stimuli. We created the dark end by covering one soda bottle with a black trash bag. Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches live under leaves in the rainforest, so they are more comfortable in dark environments. In the wild, being out in the open could make hissing cockroaches more vulnerable to predators, and we wanted to see whether food or heat would persuade the cockroaches to face their fears and come out of the dark. After setting up our arena, we numbered the cockroaches and stuck them in the dark end. We left them in there for five minutes and measured how far they came out into the light end. We conducted a total of 6 trials (2 trials for food, heat, and control treatment groups). For food treatment groups we placed bananas covered in fish food in the light end of the bottle. For heat treatments we placed a heat lamp over the light end of the bottle, and for control treatments we did not place a stimulus in the light end of the arena.

 

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The Penn State Entomology Department was kind enough to lend us 25 Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches for our experiment. Photo by Melissa O’Brien.

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This image shows our experimental design. You can see that the cockroach is in the light end of the arena near the food (fish food-covered banana in this case). You can also see the dark end of the bottle with a black trash bag taped over the end. Photo by Tracy Langkilde.

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Two Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches in the dark end of the test arena. We labeled the cockroaches as number one or number two using masking tape. Photo by Tracy Langkilde.

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Jermayne and Kiara monitoring two hissing cockroaches during one of their trials. Photo by Tracy Langkilde.

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Kiara using a sharpie marker to mark the location of a hissing cockroach that ventured into the light end of the arena. Photo by Tracy Langkilde.

Our results showed us that the heat and food treatments convinced 50 percent of the cockroaches to come out of their usual dark environments to the light end (which is a dangerous battle zone for them). Only 16 percent of them came out when there was no heat or food on the other half of the bottle (see control treatment).

This graph shows the proportion of Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches that came out of the dark for each treatment. 50% of cockroaches came out of the dark for heat and food treatments, while only 16% of cockroaches came out of the dark in control treatments.

This graph shows the proportion of Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches that came out of the dark for each treatment. 50% of cockroaches came out of the dark for heat and food treatments, while only 16% of cockroaches came out of the dark in control treatments.

The results also show us that the food caused the cockroaches to come out farther than the heat did. This tells us that sometimes cockroaches will be brave and face their fears if the reward is great enough for them (Ex: warmth via heat lamp or fish food-covered sliced bananas). This experiment like many others had its challenges. One major challenge that we faced was an escaping cockroach coming out of the side of the bottle causing major panic between our research projects. On the other hand, we managed to catch the cockroach and return it safely to the bottle and proceed with our experiment.

This graph shows the distance Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches moved out of the dark for each treatment group. Cockroaches in the food treatment moved about 18 cm out of the dark and cockroaches in the heat treatment moved about 12 cm out of the dark. Hissing cockroaches in the control treatment moved about 6 cm out of the dark.

This graph shows the distance Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches moved out of the dark for each treatment group. Cockroaches in the food treatment moved about 18 cm out of the dark and cockroaches in the heat treatment moved about 12 cm out of the dark. Hissing cockroaches in the control treatment moved about 6 cm out of the dark.

To learn more about Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches, visit the Animal Diversity Web or this informational fact-sheet by Oklahoma State University.

 

 

 

 


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Upward Bound Math and Science-Back in Action!

by Melissa O’Brien

This summer the Langkilde lab has the privilege of working with the Upward Bound Math and Science (UBMS) program for a second time. We will be mentoring high school students through the SEECoS program (Summer Experience in the Eberly College of Science). Last year we had the opportunity to work with three outstanding students: Selena Slimmer, Jermayne Jones, and Kiara Camacho. Selena graduated from Reading High School this past spring, and we are pleased to announce that she will be attending Albright College in the fall. Selena will be studying psychology and intends to minor in biology. Congratulations Selena! We are so proud of you, and we know you will be successful in everything you do!

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Selena holding her diploma with her mom by her side.

While Selena is moving on to college, we are lucky enough to be working with Jermayne and Kiara again this summer. Jermayne is a rising senior at Olney Charter High School in Philadelphia, and Kiara is a rising sophomore at Reading High School. Jermayne hopes to study forensic science at Penn State, and Kiara is interested in photography. Last summer Jermayne and Kiara worked with us on a project studying tadpole behavior, and this year they are jumping in head first with a lizard project!

Our enthusiastic research team! From left to right: Melissa O’Brien, Kiara Camacho, Jermayne Jones, and Dr. Tracy Langkilde. Photo taken by Dr. Lori Van Der Sluys.

Our enthusiastic research team! From left to right: Melissa O’Brien, Kiara Camacho, Jermayne Jones, and Dr. Tracy Langkilde. Photo taken by Dr. Lori Van Der Sluys.

Jermayne and Kiara will be helping the Langkilde lab study stress levels in the Eastern Fence Lizard (Sceloporus undulatus). In this experiment, we will be measuring a stress hormone known as corticosterone (CORT for short). In order to take a blood sample, we catch fence lizards using a fishing rod with a noose attached to its end. Once we catch a lizard, we remove the noose and use a capillary tube to collect blood from the sinus behind its eye. The process of catching, handling, and obtaining a blood sample is stressful for lizards, so if we want to get a look at natural or baseline stress levels in lizards, we need to take a blood sample before CORT levels begin to rise. According to previous research, it takes about three minutes for CORT levels to rise in birds and mammals, and we want to determine whether or not this holds true for reptiles.

In order to find fence lizards to work with, we ventured out to Raystown Field Station two weeks ago to scout out a field site (check out Mark Goldy-Brown’s blog post if you are interested in learning more about our first trip!). Last Thursday, we returned to the field station in hopes of catching additional lizards for our study. When we arrived, we realized that the weather in Juniata was not conducive to catching fence lizards, but that didn’t stop us from trying! While we waited for the rain to subside, we gave Jermayne and Kiara a crash course in fieldwork. We even used plastic lizards to practice catching fence lizards.

Jermayne (left) and Kiara (right) practicing their “lizarding” skills. Photos taken by Tracy Langkilde.

Jermayne (left) and Kiara (right) practicing their “lizarding” skills. Photos taken by Tracy Langkilde.

While the weather prevented us from catching fence lizards, we did get the opportunity to see some wildlife. Andrew McDevitt, Resident Director of Raystown Field Station, found two Ring-Necked Snakes that Jermayne was brave enough to hold. These snakes get their name from the orange ring found around their necks. Ring-Necked Snakes are harmless to humans, and our students enjoyed getting the opportunity to interact with such docile reptiles.

Jermayne (left) holding a ring-necked snake. Kiara (right) posing with a ring-necked snake. Photos taken by Tracy Langkilde.

Jermayne (left) holding a Ring-Necked Snake. Kiara (right) posing with a Ring-Necked Snake. Photos taken by Tracy Langkilde.

This ring-necked snake gets its name from the orange ring around its neck. Photo taken by Tracy Langkilde.

This Ring-Necked Snake gets its name from the orange ring around its neck. Photo taken by Tracy Langkilde.

We also took a hike around the base of the field station where Chris spotted a slimy salamander. Chris explained that these amphibians get their names from the sticky mucous they secrete to clog the mouth of a predator. We also learned that slimy salamanders are good jumpers, and quickly returned our friend to the log where we found him.

Chris Thawley holding a slimy salamander. Photo taken by Tracy Langkilde.

Chris Thawley holding a slimy salamander. Photo taken by Tracy Langkilde.

Our team investigating the slimy salamander. From left to right: Chris Thawley (holding salamander), Tracy Langkilde, Gail McCormick, Kiara Camacho, and Jermayne Jones.

Our team investigating the slimy salamander. From left to right: Chris Thawley (holding salamander), Tracy Langkilde, Gail McCormick, Kiara Camacho, and Jermayne Jones.

On the ride back to Penn State, Tracy spotted a baby box turtle on the side of the road.

Kiara and Jermayne both took the opportunity to take photos with this adorable herp.

Jermayne and Kiara posing with their box turtle friend. Photo taken by Gail McCormick.

Jermayne and Kiara posing with their box turtle friend. Photo taken by Gail McCormick.

We are eager to get back into the field next week to catch some fence lizards! Stay tuned for updates on our lizard project!

 


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A Little Introduction

Given that I am the new guy, it is only fitting that my first blog post provides a little background on myself and my research.  So I will use this opportunity to introduce myself.

First, a little about me…  As you all are aware, my name is Chris Howey, and given that we have two Chris’ in the lab, feel free to call me Howey.  I got my B.S. from the University of Delaware, my M.S. from the University of Central Arkansas, and my Ph.D. from the Ohio University.  Originally, I am from New Jersey, but I try my best to avoid that state like it’s the plague (way too many people).  I have three older sisters (explains why I’m a little not right in the head), three beautiful nieces, and an adorable nephew.  When I’m not chasing down herps, I can be found grilling and smoking meats, drinking beer, and relaxing with my fiancee down in Altoona (everyone is invited to join us!).

Since my undergrad, I have been highly interested in the conservation and proper management of reptiles.  It is very hard to get people interested in snakes, lizards, and turtles, and even more difficult to get them to want to ensure the viability of these reptile populations.  My research is centered around understanding the needs of reptile species and then communicating these needs to land managers and the public. I strongly believe that publishing one’s work in the best scientific journals in the world cannot save a reptile species from habitat loss, over-harvest, and persecution, but the conservation of reptiles (and other wildlife) can only be done by educating the public and local land managers (However… publishing in the best journals in the world can land you an awesome job).  Throughout my undergraduate, graduate, and not post-graduate career my research has focused on understanding how landscape disturbances affect reptile communities and their preferred habitat, and then disseminating that research to the appropriate audiences.  Given that the thermal landscape is one of the most important habitat characteristics for a reptile, ultimately dictating the potential body temperature and physiological performances of the animal, I have recently begun incorporating models of the thermal landscape into my research.

During my undergrad, I assisted with research investigating the effects of habitat fragmentation on the eastern box turtle.  My Master’s research investigated the effects of commercial harvest on the alligator snapping turtle.  Additionally, I studied the habitat use of the alligator snapping turtle during my Masters so that we could further understand what type of habitat must be protected if we are to encourage the recovery of this species.  During my PhD, I investigated the effects of prescribed fire on the ecology of the black racer.  Currently, I am working on getting those results published; however, I have already begun disseminating those results to land managers… which has led me to where I am at today.  For more detail on this past research, feel free to visit my website: chowey.net.

After hearing about my dissertation research, the Bureau of Forestry in Pennsylvania decided that they wanted to know more about how their prescribed fires affect timber rattlesnakes.  The timber rattlesnake is not a listed species in Pennsylvania, but many populations are in decline which makes this, perhaps, a sensitive species that could be listed someday soon.  However, there are many healthy populations of timber rattlesnakes in the center of the state.  So back in 2012/2013, the Bureau of Forestry and the US Forest Service asked if I would help lead a project looking at the effects of prescribed fire on timber rattlesnake populations in the center of the state.  … I agreed.  I quickly put together a study that would investigate the effects of prescribed fire on the available structural and thermal landscape, understand what habitat characteristics the timber rattlesnake prefers (structurally and thermally), and understand the direct, immediate, impacts of the fire itself on the rattlesnakes if they would be present during the time of the actual fire. … Unfortunately, our project was pushed aside by government budget cuts… But a few months ago, by the grace the snake gods, the project was fully funded!  I quickly looked for a lab that I could work out of within the state, and I found a fantastic lab led by Tracy Langkilde.  I thought Tracy would be a fantastic person to work with given that she already looks at stress responses to disturbances within the landscape (i.e., introduction of fire ants).  Additionally, her work with stress may even add another interesting layer to this project.

For more information regarding my past and future research, please feel free to visit my website: chowey.net

I look forward to working alongside of everyone in the Langkilde lab and sharing with you all the many timber rattlesnake stories yet to come!

Timber Rattlesnake from Ohio

Timber Rattlesnake from Ohio

 

-Howey


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Lizard in PA

So, here’s a song about being a lizard in the cold, cold, northeast US.

And for those who may not notice, it is specifically

about a male Sceloporus undulatus in Pennsylvania.

 

 

Lizard in PA  (click here if the link above is not functional)

It’s cold outside

and I can’t move my muscles

cause my physiology won’t bring the heat,

but I’ll be fine.

 

My parietal eye will tell my future

by and by

and by the sun

I will move on,

when the winter’s gone.

 

I’m a lizard in PA

and I’m coming out today

to heat my bones

and eat a bug.

 

Heat my bones

Heat my bones

 

I’m a lizard in PA

and I’m coming out today

to heat my bones

and eat a bug.

 

I hope I find my mates

and set my territory straight

before I see a flash of blue

that comes to call,

I’ll fight um all.

 

Their push ups

don’t scare me

I’m sure they’re all one hemipene

shy of a clutch,

I’d bet my lunch.

 

Heat my bones

Heat my bones

 

I’m a lizard in PA

and I’m coming out today

to heat my bones

and eat a bug.

 

Heat my bones

Heat my bones

.Heat

……….my

……………….bones

and eat bug.

 

(c) 2014

Music, lyrics, vocals, and harmonica by Travis R. Robbins

Music, vocals, and guitar by Kristan Robbins

Produced at Gwendolyn’s Sleeping Studio (TM)